We have talked several times about the long-lasting issues related to growth restriction of a fetus during pregnancy:
It can also result in offspring that have smaller muscles. New research published in the American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology suggests this may be due to adaptations to the reduced availability of oxygen and nutrients resulting in decreased ability for muscle to take up and use amino acids, the building blocks of protein.
EI Chang, SR Wesolowski, EA Gilje, PR Baker II, JA Reisz, A D’Alessandro, WW Hay Jr, PJ Rozance, LD Brown. Skeletal muscle amino acid uptake is lower and alanine production is greater in late gestation intrauterine growth-restricted fetal sheep hindlimb. American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 317(5): R615-R629, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00115.2019